A Cancer Survivor's Guide

A Cancer Survivor's Guide

Alibekit Andom



Format: 13.5 x 21.5 cm
Number of Pages: 180
ISBN: 978-3-99048-793-8
Release Date: 01.09.2017

Reading:

1 How to deal with bad news
(coping with cancer diagnosis)

There is nothing good about bad news that shockingly unexpected and you are totally unprepared for. However, as human beings, we are mortal and there are excellent teachers that help us to prepare for the worst. Reid (2000) described bad news or crises as any threat or event that creates chaos and usually, suffering. So it is the moment that threat is hovering over us and how we react to it will determine the outcome. It is true that bad news could be an overwhelming event and even could control you if you allow it to do so.
How to sing the new song and avoid the old song? How to avoid the thought of negativity? How do you convince yourself that you will be cured from this devastating and debilitating illness? These are some of the most challenging questions that come into our mind. Staying calm in such a circumstance is very easy to say but hard to do. Talking to someone really helps – particularly someone close and who you trust the most; a close family member or a friend to cry on their shoulders. Try to find a doctor who could instill onto you the belief that you will get well from your illness. I remember when I went for my CT scan for diagnosis, the doctor told me that I have a deadly brain tumor and the prognosis is a maximum of 18 months. How devastating this was. It broke my heart; it was like ‘you do not have long to live so get your things in order’. It is understandable that at this time you need someone who is compassionate, strong, and acknowledges your struggle and takes responsibility to help you through. Somers (2009) in her interview with Dr. F. Sinatra rightly pointed out that attention and belief are the most important elements in self-healing. Believing you can get well is the same as winning 50% of the battle. Moreover, Somers notes that tears contain endorphins which are healing chemicals. Cry as much as you can as it’s a human nature to do so and it has a healing effect. Moreover, there are also health benefits for releasing tears or anger. Doctor Orloff explains the benefits of tears as follows:
Body’s tears are your body’s release valve for stress, sadness, grief, anxiety and frustration. In my own life, I am grateful when I can cry. It feels cleansing, a way to purge pent up emotions so they don’t lodge in my body as stress symptoms such as fatigue or pain. To stay healthy and release stress, I encourage my patients to cry. For both men and women, tears are a sign of courage, strength and authenticity.

In emotional freedom, I discuss the numerous health benefits of tears. Like the ocean, tears are salt water. They lubricate your eyes, remove irritants, reduce stress hormones and contain antibodies that fight pathogenic microbes. Our bodies produce three kinds of tears: ref lex, continuous and emotional. Each kind has different healing roles. For instance, ref lex tears allow your eyes to clear out noxious particles when they’re irritated by smoke or exhaust. The second kind, continuous tears are produced regularly to keep our eyes lubricated. These contain a chemical called “lysozyme” which functions as an anti-bacterial and protects our eyes from infection. Tears also travel to the nose through the tear duct to keep the nose moist and bacteria free. Typically, after crying, our breathing and heart rate decrease, and we enter into a calmer biological and emotional state.
In the rest of her discussion, she explains the benefits as:
Emotional tears have special health benefits. Biochemist and “tear expert” Dr. William Frey at the Ramsey Medical Center in Minneapolis discovered that ref lex tears are 98 percent water, whereas emotional tears also contain stress hormones which get excreted from the body through crying. After studying the composition of tears, Dr. Frey found that emotional tears shed these hormones and other toxins which accumulate during stress. Additional studies also suggest that crying stimulates the production of endorphins, our body’s natural pain killer and “feel-good” hormones.” Interestingly, humans are the only creatures known to shed emotional tears, though it is possible that elephants and gorillas do too. Other mammals and also salt-water crocodiles produce ref lex tears which are protective and lubricating. Crying makes us feel better, even when a problem persists. In addition to physical detoxification, emotional tears also heal the heart so that is the reason you don’t want to hold tears back. Patients sometimes say, “Please excuse me for crying. I was trying hard not to. It makes me feel weak. My heart goes out to them when I hear this. I know where that sentiment comes from: parents who were uncomfortable around tears, a society that tells us we’re weak for crying – in particular that “powerful men don’t cry.” I reject these notions. The new enlightened paradigm of what constitutes a powerful man and woman is someone who has the strength and self awareness to cry. These are the people who impress me, not those who put up some macho front of faux-bravado. Try to let go off outmoded, untrue conceptions about crying. It is good to cry. It is healthy to cry. This helps to emotionally clear sadness and stresses.
Crying is an essential element in resolving grief, when waves of tears periodically come over us after we experience a loss. Tears also help us to experience/feel, process the loss in mind and move on so that we can keep living with no regrets. In the Gospel of John (11: 35), when Martha told Jesus that Lazarus her brother was dead, he loved him so much and was deeply troubled and wept. So there are many instances even the strongest men who could not resist the temptation of grief and release their grief by releasing their anger via crying. It is a relief and triggers healing process.
At the end, one should say to himself or herself that I am not the first person to have the illness and I will not be the last person to get it. Thus, it is important to take a step back, stay calm and let the experience sink. Get a new outlook into your life and transition with a great serenity into a new way of thinking with a self-consciousness, honor and dignity. Pick yourself up as if you do not; no one else will treat you as you would do and put your head up again and headway in the right direction. The anxiety and fear will wane off with time once you empower yourself. Hence, do not make excuses, overcome the illness or sickness and fight emotionally, spiritually and physically with the right attitude and positively. Never be discouraged even though the cloud is hovering over and over again. Never stop until it is over.
Don’t get defeated but look at what you already have and there is hope: your family, friends and so on. In my case, I was so blessed that I had a wonderful family and some friends who left their life and stood for me. Pray to almighty God (whatever your religious denomination) to give you serenity to accept the things you can not change and the courage to change the things you could change and the wisdom to know the difference (McGraw-Hill, 2008). Look to those around you who have not the strength/energy you have, the friends and family members you are blessed with. You might feel you lost a big part of your life by the illness, but at the end of the day none of us are going to have an eternal life on this planet. Moreover, this could be an opportunity of a new window for the future. So take a good heart and encourage those around you the people who stood by you instead. If there are issues you are concerned about worsening of the illness discuss with the professionals and never be discouraged by the illness. Joel Osteen in one of his sermons explains about self profoundly as follows:
• have a good opinion of yourself
• take yourself as talented, victorious, valued, and healthy
• treat yourself well, if you do not no one else will
• do not utter a negative thing about yourself; say positively I will be cured, I am getting better
• complement yourself

I found his words on self-praise encouraging, full of wisdom and empowering. When God completed His creation and seen it as very good, He rewarded Himself. Thus, God praised what He has accomplished and rested on the seventh day (Genesis 1:31). So long as you do not offend others with your actions, treating yourself or praising yourself is not a bad thing at all. Believe in the Lord as He already knows your destiny, be optimistic that you will overcome the illness and be healed. Never shutdown your dreams and don’t cease looking after yourself (e.g. proper eating, exercise as much as you can, reading the things you trust e.g. inspirational speeches, meditation, bible reading, attending a good church or other place of worship whatever other religious persuasion or denomination you follow). The side effects of the drugs might try to shutter your appetite and mood but fight back with different management techniques. There are lots of excellent books with guidance such as in exercising, stress management, different relaxation methods, taking hot bath, recognize what you can do or not, acknowledge and celebrate your successes and so forth. As Somers explained, find a doctor who believes that you will get cured from the illness and tries all he/she can to treat you. Illnesses provide us with an opportunity to dig into our emotional and spiritual self and treat the root source instead of dealing with the result that is causing the body to be sick.
Half of the battle against the illness is won if the individual accepts the facts and trusts that she/he is the only one who knows what is best for him/her. God may have another plan for us for big things such as promotion, change of direction or gaining real experience, such as being in the valley of blessing (the shadow of the death). Everything happens for a reason and this is not different. The promise of the belief that I will win the battle encourages us to look into ourselves and help our body to fight against the particular disease and other illnesses. Thus, if the worst comes, the promise is the person will die a decent death realizing that he/she has fought – courageously, persevere, and face a happy ending, surrounded by their loved ones.


2 The definition of cancer cells in relation to normal cells

Cancer is the name given to derivatives of characteristically associated diseases. There are different types of cancer that could affect different parts of the body such as carcinomas that develop in the tissues; leukemia that develop in blood cells; lymphomas that develop in lymph node; sarcomas that affects the cells of supportive tissues and likewise their behavior is different. Moreover, their biochemical characteristics and how fast they could grow and spread may differ. The key to the illnesses is the cells start to divide and continue to grow and spread into the surrounding areas without halting.
As Djamgoz and Plant (2014) pointed out, all tissue and structures within our bodies are made up of more than 100 trillion tiny cells, most of which are constantly reproducing. Without this reproduction and replacement of cells we would simply wear out. So human cells normally grow and divide to form new cells as required by the body. As the cells grow older, they die and are replaced by new cells and when they reach at certain growth level, the cells stop growth when signaled to cease. As Kirby & Tim (2012) note, the death of the cells is triggered by the cell itself or by adjacent cells or by the immune system. Unfortunately, cancer cells lack this normal orderly process. Therefore, cancer cells can grow out of control and become invasive. They are less specialized than normal cells whereas normal cells grow into distinctive in a specialized function. Thus, cancer cells continue to divide and grow without stopping by evading. The cell growth could develop into a large solid mass called tumors. Not all cancers are solid masses – such as leukemia which is a blood cancer. The tumors could be malignant or benign. Benign tumors can be uncomfortable but are not life threatening. Malignant tumors however can grow into large masses and spread into other areas via blood vessels, lymphatic system and from organ to organ directly. Therefore, the malignant tumor invades and occupies space. They are very specialized in consuming resources, causing obstructions and depriving other cells of nutrients.


3 Cancer: what is it?

To understand what cancer is and how it is treated, knowing how the normal cell divides and when their normal lifespan ends will shed some light. Moreover, this will help in understanding the cancer growth process.
• The human body is made up of trillions of cells. Some of these cells, such us white blood cells (WBC), have a very short lifespan and last for only two days. Some cells such as human nerve cells are made to last a whole human life. Some cells such as those in the lining of the gut last only for 36 hours due to the harsh environment. These cells must be replenished continually so that the tissue functions properly. New cells are produced constantly to replace the dead cells by the process called mitosis. In this process, one cell divides into two identical cells and each of the daughter cells again divides into two new ones and the process continues. However, there are controlling mechanisms that instruct when the cell is to divide. This mechanism is controlled by the genetic material in the cell nucleus called deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
The backbone of DNA is made up of deoxyribose sugar alternating with a phosphate group. The rings of the ladder are composed of bases. Each ring is made up of base pairs-two bases connected by weak hydrogen bonding between them. In human, there are two kinds of bases. The purine bases are (double ringed-large molecules): Adenine (A) and guanine (G). The pyrimidine bases (are single-ringed large molecules): thymine (T) and cytosine (C). The purine adenine (A) always pairs with the pyrimidine thymine (T) and likewise the purine guanine (G) with the pyrimidine cytosine (C). For example, in a DNA ladder a sequence could be C-G, A-T, and C-G. The sequence of three bases pairing is called a codon. So the rule of base pairing tells us that if we read the sequence of nucleotide in one DNA strand, we can instantly construe the complementary sequence on the other strand.
During cell division, the DNA transforms into rod-like structures called chromosomes. Each chromosome makes a duplicate of itself. The duplicate is then separated at the weakest bonding between the base pairs. The chemical bonding between the base pairs is hydrogen bonding which is a weak covalent bonding. Each half rebuilds into a whole molecule, yielding two identical DNA molecules. At the end of cell division or last phase of cell division, a cell cytoplasm and cell membrane form between the two sets of chromosomes, creating two cells. This process is very precise provided all the favorable conditions are met. However, in some rare cases during the base paring (codon) could be misplaced or lost leading to mutation. Though, this occurs very often, this misspelled codons are rectified by special enzymes that are looking up and down along the DNA ladder. However, some still evade all these rectification mechanisms and the cell tries other mechanisms to eliminate or minimize the damage.
Cell division is indispensable for growth and survival. However, every living creature has the end and likewise the end of the cells life span comes in one of two ways: either apoptosis or necrosis.

Apoptosis is a pre-planned, and a regular process of cell death that occurs as part of a natural procedure by the cell itself in order to maintain a balance of the cellular multiplication. Apoptosis is beneficial and is a requirement for the smooth function of the body. In this process, the cell maintains its cell wall integrity and rather there is shrinkage of the whole cell. The cell forms a condensed body known as apoptosis. This body is recognized by the immune system and destroyed or engulfed eff iciently by the immune cells. The process is carried out so orderly and efficiently; there are no other inf lammations to the body. This process is usually necessary to the body in order to maintain cellular balance in the body. If the cells do not die on time it could lead to many diseases including heart and liver disease, and formation of tumors.

Necrosis is a pathological process that results in a sudden cell death when cells are exposed to extreme conditions. These rough conditions could be exposure to toxins, extreme temperatures, lack of oxygen, lack of proper nutrition and so forth. In this case, there is loss of integrity of the wall of the cell and this leads to swelling as well as disintegration of small bodies of the cell. This results inf lammation and tissue damage that leads to accumulation of cellular debris. Thus, necrosis is an un-programmed cell death leading to inf lammation as components of the ruptured spewing all its contents and causing harm to the body requiring an immediate action to limit the damage.

1 How to deal with bad news
(coping with cancer diagnosis)

There is nothing good about bad news that shockingly unexpected and you are totally unprepared for. However, as human beings, we are mortal and there are excellent teachers that help us to prepare for the worst. Reid (2000) described bad news or crises as any threat or event that creates chaos and usually, suffering. So it is the moment that threat is hovering over us and how we react to it will determine the outcome. It is true that bad news could be an overwhelming event and even could control you if you allow it to do so.
How to sing the new song and avoid the old song? How to avoid the thought of negativity? How do you convince yourself that you will be cured from this devastating and debilitating illness? These are some of the most challenging questions that come into our mind. Staying calm in such a circumstance is very easy to say but hard to do. Talking to someone really helps – particularly someone close and who you trust the most; a close family member or a friend to cry on their shoulders. Try to find a doctor who could instill onto you the belief that you will get well from your illness. I remember when I went for my CT scan for diagnosis, the doctor told me that I have a deadly brain tumor and the prognosis is a maximum of 18 months. How devastating this was. It broke my heart; it was like ‘you do not have long to live so get your things in order’. It is understandable that at this time you need someone who is compassionate, strong, and acknowledges your struggle and takes responsibility to help you through. Somers (2009) in her interview with Dr. F. Sinatra rightly pointed out that attention and belief are the most important elements in self-healing. Believing you can get well is the same as winning 50% of the battle. Moreover, Somers notes that tears contain endorphins which are healing chemicals. Cry as much as you can as it’s a human nature to do so and it has a healing effect. Moreover, there are also health benefits for releasing tears or anger. Doctor Orloff explains the benefits of tears as follows:
Body’s tears are your body’s release valve for stress, sadness, grief, anxiety and frustration. In my own life, I am grateful when I can cry. It feels cleansing, a way to purge pent up emotions so they don’t lodge in my body as stress symptoms such as fatigue or pain. To stay healthy and release stress, I encourage my patients to cry. For both men and women, tears are a sign of courage, strength and authenticity.

In emotional freedom, I discuss the numerous health benefits of tears. Like the ocean, tears are salt water. They lubricate your eyes, remove irritants, reduce stress hormones and contain antibodies that fight pathogenic microbes. Our bodies produce three kinds of tears: ref lex, continuous and emotional. Each kind has different healing roles. For instance, ref lex tears allow your eyes to clear out noxious particles when they’re irritated by smoke or exhaust. The second kind, continuous tears are produced regularly to keep our eyes lubricated. These contain a chemical called “lysozyme” which functions as an anti-bacterial and protects our eyes from infection. Tears also travel to the nose through the tear duct to keep the nose moist and bacteria free. Typically, after crying, our breathing and heart rate decrease, and we enter into a calmer biological and emotional state.
In the rest of her discussion, she explains the benefits as:
Emotional tears have special health benefits. Biochemist and “tear expert” Dr. William Frey at the Ramsey Medical Center in Minneapolis discovered that ref lex tears are 98 percent water, whereas emotional tears also contain stress hormones which get excreted from the body through crying. After studying the composition of tears, Dr. Frey found that emotional tears shed these hormones and other toxins which accumulate during stress. Additional studies also suggest that crying stimulates the production of endorphins, our body’s natural pain killer and “feel-good” hormones.” Interestingly, humans are the only creatures known to shed emotional tears, though it is possible that elephants and gorillas do too. Other mammals and also salt-water crocodiles produce ref lex tears which are protective and lubricating. Crying makes us feel better, even when a problem persists. In addition to physical detoxification, emotional tears also heal the heart so that is the reason you don’t want to hold tears back. Patients sometimes say, “Please excuse me for crying. I was trying hard not to. It makes me feel weak. My heart goes out to them when I hear this. I know where that sentiment comes from: parents who were uncomfortable around tears, a society that tells us we’re weak for crying – in particular that “powerful men don’t cry.” I reject these notions. The new enlightened paradigm of what constitutes a powerful man and woman is someone who has the strength and self awareness to cry. These are the people who impress me, not those who put up some macho front of faux-bravado. Try to let go off outmoded, untrue conceptions about crying. It is good to cry. It is healthy to cry. This helps to emotionally clear sadness and stresses.
Crying is an essential element in resolving grief, when waves of tears periodically come over us after we experience a loss. Tears also help us to experience/feel, process the loss in mind and move on so that we can keep living with no regrets. In the Gospel of John (11: 35), when Martha told Jesus that Lazarus her brother was dead, he loved him so much and was deeply troubled and wept. So there are many instances even the strongest men who could not resist the temptation of grief and release their grief by releasing their anger via crying. It is a relief and triggers healing process.
At the end, one should say to himself or herself that I am not the first person to have the illness and I will not be the last person to get it. Thus, it is important to take a step back, stay calm and let the experience sink. Get a new outlook into your life and transition with a great serenity into a new way of thinking with a self-consciousness, honor and dignity. Pick yourself up as if you do not; no one else will treat you as you would do and put your head up again and headway in the right direction. The anxiety and fear will wane off with time once you empower yourself. Hence, do not make excuses, overcome the illness or sickness and fight emotionally, spiritually and physically with the right attitude and positively. Never be discouraged even though the cloud is hovering over and over again. Never stop until it is over.
Don’t get defeated but look at what you already have and there is hope: your family, friends and so on. In my case, I was so blessed that I had a wonderful family and some friends who left their life and stood for me. Pray to almighty God (whatever your religious denomination) to give you serenity to accept the things you can not change and the courage to change the things you could change and the wisdom to know the difference (McGraw-Hill, 2008). Look to those around you who have not the strength/energy you have, the friends and family members you are blessed with. You might feel you lost a big part of your life by the illness, but at the end of the day none of us are going to have an eternal life on this planet. Moreover, this could be an opportunity of a new window for the future. So take a good heart and encourage those around you the people who stood by you instead. If there are issues you are concerned about worsening of the illness discuss with the professionals and never be discouraged by the illness. Joel Osteen in one of his sermons explains about self profoundly as follows:
• have a good opinion of yourself
• take yourself as talented, victorious, valued, and healthy
• treat yourself well, if you do not no one else will
• do not utter a negative thing about yourself; say positively I will be cured, I am getting better
• complement yourself

I found his words on self-praise encouraging, full of wisdom and empowering. When God completed His creation and seen it as very good, He rewarded Himself. Thus, God praised what He has accomplished and rested on the seventh day (Genesis 1:31). So long as you do not offend others with your actions, treating yourself or praising yourself is not a bad thing at all. Believe in the Lord as He already knows your destiny, be optimistic that you will overcome the illness and be healed. Never shutdown your dreams and don’t cease looking after yourself (e.g. proper eating, exercise as much as you can, reading the things you trust e.g. inspirational speeches, meditation, bible reading, attending a good church or other place of worship whatever other religious persuasion or denomination you follow). The side effects of the drugs might try to shutter your appetite and mood but fight back with different management techniques. There are lots of excellent books with guidance such as in exercising, stress management, different relaxation methods, taking hot bath, recognize what you can do or not, acknowledge and celebrate your successes and so forth. As Somers explained, find a doctor who believes that you will get cured from the illness and tries all he/she can to treat you. Illnesses provide us with an opportunity to dig into our emotional and spiritual self and treat the root source instead of dealing with the result that is causing the body to be sick.
Half of the battle against the illness is won if the individual accepts the facts and trusts that she/he is the only one who knows what is best for him/her. God may have another plan for us for big things such as promotion, change of direction or gaining real experience, such as being in the valley of blessing (the shadow of the death). Everything happens for a reason and this is not different. The promise of the belief that I will win the battle encourages us to look into ourselves and help our body to fight against the particular disease and other illnesses. Thus, if the worst comes, the promise is the person will die a decent death realizing that he/she has fought – courageously, persevere, and face a happy ending, surrounded by their loved ones.


2 The definition of cancer cells in relation to normal cells

Cancer is the name given to derivatives of characteristically associated diseases. There are different types of cancer that could affect different parts of the body such as carcinomas that develop in the tissues; leukemia that develop in blood cells; lymphomas that develop in lymph node; sarcomas that affects the cells of supportive tissues and likewise their behavior is different. Moreover, their biochemical characteristics and how fast they could grow and spread may differ. The key to the illnesses is the cells start to divide and continue to grow and spread into the surrounding areas without halting.
As Djamgoz and Plant (2014) pointed out, all tissue and structures within our bodies are made up of more than 100 trillion tiny cells, most of which are constantly reproducing. Without this reproduction and replacement of cells we would simply wear out. So human cells normally grow and divide to form new cells as required by the body. As the cells grow older, they die and are replaced by new cells and when they reach at certain growth level, the cells stop growth when signaled to cease. As Kirby & Tim (2012) note, the death of the cells is triggered by the cell itself or by adjacent cells or by the immune system. Unfortunately, cancer cells lack this normal orderly process. Therefore, cancer cells can grow out of control and become invasive. They are less specialized than normal cells whereas normal cells grow into distinctive in a specialized function. Thus, cancer cells continue to divide and grow without stopping by evading. The cell growth could develop into a large solid mass called tumors. Not all cancers are solid masses – such as leukemia which is a blood cancer. The tumors could be malignant or benign. Benign tumors can be uncomfortable but are not life threatening. Malignant tumors however can grow into large masses and spread into other areas via blood vessels, lymphatic system and from organ to organ directly. Therefore, the malignant tumor invades and occupies space. They are very specialized in consuming resources, causing obstructions and depriving other cells of nutrients.


3 Cancer: what is it?

To understand what cancer is and how it is treated, knowing how the normal cell divides and when their normal lifespan ends will shed some light. Moreover, this will help in understanding the cancer growth process.
• The human body is made up of trillions of cells. Some of these cells, such us white blood cells (WBC), have a very short lifespan and last for only two days. Some cells such as human nerve cells are made to last a whole human life. Some cells such as those in the lining of the gut last only for 36 hours due to the harsh environment. These cells must be replenished continually so that the tissue functions properly. New cells are produced constantly to replace the dead cells by the process called mitosis. In this process, one cell divides into two identical cells and each of the daughter cells again divides into two new ones and the process continues. However, there are controlling mechanisms that instruct when the cell is to divide. This mechanism is controlled by the genetic material in the cell nucleus called deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
The backbone of DNA is made up of deoxyribose sugar alternating with a phosphate group. The rings of the ladder are composed of bases. Each ring is made up of base pairs-two bases connected by weak hydrogen bonding between them. In human, there are two kinds of bases. The purine bases are (double ringed-large molecules): Adenine (A) and guanine (G). The pyrimidine bases (are single-ringed large molecules): thymine (T) and cytosine (C). The purine adenine (A) always pairs with the pyrimidine thymine (T) and likewise the purine guanine (G) with the pyrimidine cytosine (C). For example, in a DNA ladder a sequence could be C-G, A-T, and C-G. The sequence of three bases pairing is called a codon. So the rule of base pairing tells us that if we read the sequence of nucleotide in one DNA strand, we can instantly construe the complementary sequence on the other strand.
During cell division, the DNA transforms into rod-like structures called chromosomes. Each chromosome makes a duplicate of itself. The duplicate is then separated at the weakest bonding between the base pairs. The chemical bonding between the base pairs is hydrogen bonding which is a weak covalent bonding. Each half rebuilds into a whole molecule, yielding two identical DNA molecules. At the end of cell division or last phase of cell division, a cell cytoplasm and cell membrane form between the two sets of chromosomes, creating two cells. This process is very precise provided all the favorable conditions are met. However, in some rare cases during the base paring (codon) could be misplaced or lost leading to mutation. Though, this occurs very often, this misspelled codons are rectified by special enzymes that are looking up and down along the DNA ladder. However, some still evade all these rectification mechanisms and the cell tries other mechanisms to eliminate or minimize the damage.
Cell division is indispensable for growth and survival. However, every living creature has the end and likewise the end of the cells life span comes in one of two ways: either apoptosis or necrosis.

Apoptosis is a pre-planned, and a regular process of cell death that occurs as part of a natural procedure by the cell itself in order to maintain a balance of the cellular multiplication. Apoptosis is beneficial and is a requirement for the smooth function of the body. In this process, the cell maintains its cell wall integrity and rather there is shrinkage of the whole cell. The cell forms a condensed body known as apoptosis. This body is recognized by the immune system and destroyed or engulfed eff iciently by the immune cells. The process is carried out so orderly and efficiently; there are no other inf lammations to the body. This process is usually necessary to the body in order to maintain cellular balance in the body. If the cells do not die on time it could lead to many diseases including heart and liver disease, and formation of tumors.

Necrosis is a pathological process that results in a sudden cell death when cells are exposed to extreme conditions. These rough conditions could be exposure to toxins, extreme temperatures, lack of oxygen, lack of proper nutrition and so forth. In this case, there is loss of integrity of the wall of the cell and this leads to swelling as well as disintegration of small bodies of the cell. This results inf lammation and tissue damage that leads to accumulation of cellular debris. Thus, necrosis is an un-programmed cell death leading to inf lammation as components of the ruptured spewing all its contents and causing harm to the body requiring an immediate action to limit the damage.

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